Current Issues With COSO’s Draft Framework Update

Failures Within the COSO Framework Community

In 1992, COSO released its original Internal Control – Integrated Framework. This framework was in response to the requirements of the 1977 U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. The framework’s stakeholders have raised the following issues in their comments to the draft COSO 2012 update:

1. The majority of the firms at the center of the global financial crisis were following the SEC regulations which included having an effective internal control over financial reporting (ICFR). The firms’ SEC filings all claimed to have effective ICFR under COSO. Their assessment approaches were failures.

2. COSO has not defined and declared the problems with the existing COSO Framework materials. It has embarked on creating to an updated solution to an undisclosed set of issues.

3. The COSO 2012 update of the framework was developed primarily from one frame of reference.

4. The development approach to this revision did not follow a “Good Judgment Workflow” process. The timing of the process does not provide for adequate review, discussion and consensus development among diverse stakeholders with differing frames of reference.

COSO created a summary definition for an internal control framework containing three control objective categories: operations, financial reporting and compliance. It has also divided the principles concerning controls into five summary components:

1. Risk Assessment

2. Control Environment – Tone at the Top

3. Control Activities

4. Information and Communication

5. Monitoring

COSO followed up on its original framework documentation with additional documentation on the principles and their attributes. In 2004, COSO produced guidance on how to design and implement an enterprise-wide risk management framework. In 2006, COSO issued its guidance for smaller public companies on the principles and attributes of an ICFR Framework. This document was used extensively by the SEC and the PCAOB in their guidance and audit regulations in 2007. A based set of principles-based documentation has been created for the evaluation and assessment of ICFR. COSO must be congratulated for avoiding use of a rules-based approach.

Various commenters are calling on COSO to accomplish the following:

1. Public companies that fall under the regulation of the SEC need to have creditable guidance on how to apply the principles to address the business opportunities and risks with an effective and unique set of internal controls. The guidance needs to provide a comprehensive methodology for the assessment of ICFR.

2. COSO must state clearly the problems with the current Framework materials and their usage in creating controls. There are extensive issues with the creation, maintenance and assessment of COSO frameworks by management. There have been significant corporate governance failings concerning the review of management’s assessments. It does not appear that the external auditors are yet clearly instructed by the regulators on how to play their assurance role. The SECs has a focus on ICFR.

3. COSO needs to directly address the quality control enhancements for Corporate Governance and Risk Assessment. Better Corporate Governance and Risk Assessment are essential to prevent and lessen executive management excesses. The initial SOX regulations and reactions to those SOX regulations did not address the Corporate Governance and Risk Management issues that Congress was trying to address with Sarbanes-Oxley. Auditing Standard 2 and the preponderance of management’s internal control frameworks ran to the detail processing of transactions ignoring entity -level risk assessments. This left open the door for the Corporate Governance and Risk Management failures: i.e. AIG, Fannie/Freddie, Lehman Brothers, Country Wide, Merrill Lynch, MF Global, Lehman Brothers, etc.

4. COSO must implement a “Good Judgment Workflow” process for the approval of the revisions to its materials. COSO needs to recognize that the developers are dominated by a single frame of reference: Big Auditing Firm Experience. Those of us who have been external auditors, internal auditors, CFO’s, CEO’s, consultants to SEC registered firms and educators on frameworks understand how limiting this frame of reference has been to presenting a workable comprehensive framework.

5. COSO needs to establish a strategic plan and a tactical plan for its activities concerning “Quality Controls” over Corporate Governance and the issuing of audited financial statements. The 1977 Foreign Corrupt Practices Act was the first federal mandate for internal control framework usage. COSO’s current Framework was created for addressing this requirement. Most stakeholders did not take this requirement seriously until the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed. In this 25 year period little work was accomplished to enhance the art of ICFR by COSO.

Confidence in COSO 2.0

Stakeholders are confident that COSO can move forward to produce a better set of guidance concerning the establishment, maintenance and assessment of internal control frameworks. Historically, COSO has created a number of guidance documents that have contributed to the improvement of internal control frameworks. Numerous professionals have reached a base level of competence in the components of an framework by using the COSO materials as part of their guidance. Auditing firms have greatly expanded their auditing of ICFR and the documentation of this testing in their workpapers. Audit quality controls systems are improving on most firms. The current members of COSO are motivated to the enhancement of the guidance being provided.

COSO needs to:

1. Establish a strategic and technical plan for the updating of the original COSO Framework which is a quality control methodology covering corporate governance, financial reporting and compliance.

2. Within the short-term tactical period:

a. Enhance the current development team with additional frames of reference.

b. Define a clear “good judgment workflow’ for comments, discussion and approval that creates a new base document.

c. Issue a clear problem statement that supports the enhancement efforts.

3. Recognize that if the private stakeholders do not create a comprehensive set of guidelines we will continue to have Congress and Regulators setting the guidelines.

4. Add to the membership and governance of COSO stakeholders that bring frames of reference including risk management, corporate governance, legal, information technology, quality control methodologies, operations, regulators, etc.

COSO will find that if all the stakeholders take part in the process, we can advance the state of the art in frameworks. If we can do this, we will create value for the society as a whole.

What’s Next, North or South?

On a day when you hear about the worlds largest bank CITI Group losing $5 Billion and cutting 4,000 jobs world wide, you might expect markets to be down severely. You might also have expected the FTSE to stumble on the news that RBS is preparing a rights issue to shore up its balance sheet. However, apart from some early nervousness on Friday, the UKs benchmark index managed to close the week up 3.2%. The CAC & DAX both managed 4.3%.

The worse is behind us argument continued to gather pace as evidenced by RBS share price actually rising on the day of the rights issue announcement. Investors had been speculating for months that RBS would be taking this step and in some ways the eventual announcement relieved some of the pressure on the UK banking sector. More than anything markets hate indecision and traders seem buoyed by the hope of an eventual end point to the liquidity crisis.

A significant catalyst last week was some positive earnings announcements from some heavy hitting US companies; Intel, Coca Cola, Honeywell, Caterpillar, Google and IBM all surprised to the upside. According to Bloomberg, profits have slumped 26% on average from the companies releasing results so far with the financial sector being the worst hit. However, this was largely expected to be the case, and share prices have adjusted to price in consensus estimates. One important question is whether US companies have truly under promised and over delivered, or if investors are just fearful of missing out on a rally.

On the currency markets, the Pound and Dollar made up lost ground lost after figures showed Eurozone inflation hitting a 16-year high. Chinese CPI was also red hot with staples such as soyabeans and rice continuing to rise. The price of rice has doubled since August 2007 while sugar and wheat have retreated from recent highs. The king of commodities, oil, continues to make record highs and until this market significantly retreats, inflation projections will remain high. This will put further pressure on central banks such as The Bank Of England, which has to balance fighting inflation with easing the liquidity crisis in the credit markets.

Inter bank lending rates have remained stubbornly high since the summer, with the actual cost of lending being a quarter point higher than the official LIBOR rate. The fact that The Bank Of Englands recent loan action was over subscribed by three times the amount tells its own story. With little movement on LIBOR or mortgage fees so far, the next move could put further pressure on the Bank of England to cut rates.

Traders foresees that while the worst may or may not be behind us, what is probable is that it won’t be plain sailing from here in either direction. There may still be some pull backs along the way even if March turns out to be the low point of this credit crunch for the FTSE. A one touch with the trigger set to 5900 could return 50% over the next 17 days.

A Moderate’s View of President Obama

The vast majority of Americans are proud to have elected President Obama, our first black Chief of State. We are proud to demonstrate to the world and our own fellow citizens that race no longer matters in our society. We have put race, ethnicity, national origin, and gender behind us and (theoretically) every American can do whatever they rise to the challenge to do – without barriers. We have a much better “face” to the rest of the world that we are not the superior people of a high and mighty superpower but equals when it comes to justice and democracy throughout the world. Let’s face it — George W. Bush alienated much of the world by not seeking international support and consensus for actions he undertook.

Former President Jimmy Carter is dead wrong in his assessment that the attacks on President Obama’s political agenda are race inspired. Nothing could be further from the truth. Yes, there will always be small fringe groups on the right or left but these are out of the mainstream. Carter’s outrageous suggestion really tells how far out of reality he has wandered.

We all agree that President Obama inherited the greatest financial disaster since The Great Depression. The financial markets’ bailout started under the Bush administration, as did planning for The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. But mainstream Americans are scared to death of the trillions of dollars of debt that are being added to the national debt – ultimately impacting the quality of life of your children and grandchildren in the long-term and to each of us in the short term, as the value of the US dollar has nowhere to go but down when compared to currencies of governments operating under fiscal restraints. If John McCain had been elected, we could very well have this same sickening feeling of the country’s financial mess we are leaving for our posterity. And healthcare? Nearly everyone agrees it is out of control and consuming much too much of our money with it’s runaway costs. We don’t want Cigna making life decisions any more than the so-called death panels, which these insurance oligopolies currently do. The only argument is how are we going to pay for it and will it really improve if the government gets its sticky fingers in it?

The real issue is a strong distrust of all politicians by mainstream Americans. Republicans, Democrats, and Libertarians are all at or near the bottom of those we trust, right behind used car salesmen. Most politicians are on par with the corporate executives who at critical times in their company’s history – at key decision points – chose what made them look and feel good over the needs of the corporation and its shareholders. We see the same thing in politicians. What will get me re-elected. What pork barrel projects – whether good for the country or not – will make my constituents indebted to me to keep me in office.

Americans are angry and stressed out over the housing, financial, and jobs crisis. We do not want to see the decline of the country as the world leader, because of bad corporate and political self-serving decisions. We want our dollar to be worth something in the future and not stick our children and grandchildren with the mistakes – read massive debt – of today. Government (politicians) and corporations must work hard to regain the trust of the American people to get us back on solid economic and political ground.

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